This article focuses on transracial adoption but does not explicitly focus on the mixed race experience. National Center for Biotechnology Information , U. In some studies e. Mixed ethnicity children are subject to racism and complete inclusion of both parts of their heritage. Alexander and Curtis , for example, exclusively critiqued the research on African American transracial adoptees. International concerns about baby selling, kidnapping, and forced labor also have led some countries to discontinue overseas adoptions and, at other times, have led the United States to disallow adoption from specific countries. It is difficult but essential to balance these two qualities within the family identity.
It is difficult but essential to balance these two qualities within the family identity. Most Americans believed in the naturalness of race-matching, but race-matching could be very difficult to achieve, so it was not at all natural in the sense of being automatic. Apparently, many Latino children with European physical features can safely escape such expressions of racism. Lee, University of Minnesota;.
Racial inculcation There is limited empirical research on the extent to which transracial adoptive parents engage in racial inculcation or the teaching of coping skills to help children deal effectively with racism and discrimination. Facebook Twitter Flipboard Email. Black adoptees must be inoculated against white racial understandings, stereotypes and insults to black identity by well-intentioned and not so well-intentioned Whites, and ignoring or de-emphasizing the needs of black children's racial identity development can have a profound effect on mental health. Black children were kin, not projects in racial reconciliation or pawns in racial conflict.
A review and meta-analysis. Only two studies were identified that separately measured racial identity and ethnic identity. Moreover, these strategies are not necessarily mutually exclusive. Open in a separate window. Compare that with say, France, where Alexander and Curtis , for example, exclusively critiqued the research on African American transracial adoptees.